همان طوری که اطلاع دارید میزان مصرف روزانه خوراک در دامهای نشخوارکننده توسط سه فرضیه ذیل مورد بررسی و ارزیابی های کارشناسی قرار می گیرند:
1- تئوری کمواستاتیک مواد شیمیایی(گلوکز خون (بیشتر در تک معده ای ها) تنظیم کوتاه مدت اشتهاء، اسیدهای چرب فرار ،( DE>2.5 MCAL\Kg ) و اخیرأ مقدار RDP در خوراک)، نوروترانسمیترها و آگونیست های گاماآمینوبوتریک اسید،نوروپپتیدهای مغزی نظیر اُپی یایدها که در سیستم عصبی-هورمونی سیری-گرسنگی تأثیر می گذارند.
2-هورمونهای دستگاه گوارش نظیر گلوکاگون، انسولین و بافت چربی (عمدتأ لپتین) و غیره
3- سیستم عصبی-هورمونی بیشتر بر روی هورمون کوله سیستوکینین(CCK8) و نوروترانسمیترهای مغزی(محور-هیپوفیز-هیپوتالاموس).
شکل اجزای مختلف شکمبه نشخوارکنندگان
از باکتری های غالب مژک دار در شکمبه دامهای نشخوارکننده دیپلودینیوم است که نقش زیادی در هضم مواد نشاسته ای دارد.
دریافت مقاله انگلیسی:
Kingdom: Eubacteria and Protist
Scientific Name: Diplodinium
Image Courtesy of: C.L. Davis,
Image Width: 35 microns
Image Technology: SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)
Rumen microbes could be considered a cow’s best
friend. Without microbes, a cow’s digestive system
would shut down and she would starve to death.
Cows and microbes actually have a mutually
benefi cial relationship. Microbes give the cow:
labor to digest feed;
a source of protein;
a source of volatile fatty acids;
the ability to digest forage.
On the other hand, cows provide
grinding (cut chewing) of feed;
anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions.
There are three main groups of rumen microbes:
Bacteria carry out most of the digestion of sugars,
starch, fi ber, and protein for the cow.
Protozoa swallow and digest bacteria, starch
granules, and some fi ber.
Fungi make up only a small fraction of the
rumen microbial population, but they appear to
be important in splitting open plant fi bers to make
them more easily digested by the bacteria
ایجاد سنگ در مجاری و مخازن نگهداری ادرار در بدن حیوانات اهلی نیاز به شرایطی دارد که از مهمترین آنها می توان به ترکیبات مواد معدنی در خوراک(بالاخص کلسیم و فسفر و منیزیمُ - مواد مغذی خصوصا پروتئین و تجزیه پورین ها و ترکیبات ازته دیگر نظیر اوره زیاد در ادرار و میزان پی-اچ ادرار - میزان مصرف آب و کیفیت آن -ُ مصرف نوع علوفه (خشک و آبدار) و شرایط زندگی حیوان ُ آب و هوا - جنسیت و ... اشاره نمود.
Dog Struvite Horse Calcium Carbonate
Calcium oxalate Ox Struvite
Cystine Calcium oxalate
Silicate Calcium phosphate
Calcium phosphate Sheep Silicate
Cat Struvite Struvite
Calcium oxalate Calcium oxalate
Urate Calcium phosphate
Cystine Pig Urate
Table 1: Types or uroliths observed in domestic animals.
UROLITHIASIS IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS
S.P. DiBartola, DVM
جهت دریافت کد مقاله در ادامه مطلب با آدرس ای میل نویسنده ( email@example.com تماس بگیرید.
2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol
(یک ترکیب آلی مرکب از دو حلقه فنلی و
یک گروه هیدروکسیل است که جهت مقابله با میکرب ها
در انبار میوه و سبزیجات تازه کاربرد دارد.)
افزودنی های خوراکی و تولید مکمل های معدنی و ویتامینی می بایست علاوه بر داشتن گواهینامه بهداشتی از سازمان دامپزشکی کشور دارای برند تخصصی و استانداردهای تضمین کیفیت (QA) و QI) )از مجامع جهانی نظیر FDA, WHO و غیره نیز باشند. از طرفی میزان افزودنی های مجاز در مکمل ها نظیر انواع خاک رس و ترکیبات کمپلکس مشابه مصنوعی نیز که معمولا به نام پرکننده (Filler) و یا همراه (binder) و قوام دهنده(Stabilizer) مطرح هستند در کنار مواد رنگ دهنده، طعم دهنده و غیره در ساخت کنسانتره های دامی، طیور و آبزیان می بایست استانداردهای مزبور را داشته باشند.
Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them.
Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.
Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.
Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive.
Color retention agents
In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color.
Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.
Flour treatment agents
Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods.
Humectants prevent foods from drying out.
Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life.
Alphabetical index of food additives
منبع:J. Anim Sci. 2010. 88:3749-3758. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-2907
Factors affecting beef cattle producer perspectives on feed efficiency
Keys to Successful Reproductive Performance
Dec 15, 2009
I have had the privilege to visit numerous dairy herds which consistently achieve high milk production and excellent reproductive performance. This article lists the major common characteristics among these herds.
I have had the privilege to visit dairy herds which consistently achieve high milk production and excellent reproductive performance. Some major common characteristics among these herds are:
1. Commitment to maintaining a high heat detection rate or submission rate to first service
The strategies to accomplish this vary among herds but include one or more of the following systems:
- Routine visual observation for estrous behavior which results in accurate and efficient detection of estrus.
- Proper use of either traditional heat detection aids or electronic systems to capture activity associated with estrus.
- Implementation of a proven estrous synchronization or timed insemination program.
- Contracting the services of an artificial breeding organization to perform estrous detection and other tasks associated with reproductive management.
The key is a systematic approach assuring a high percentage of the herd is inseminated between the voluntary waiting period and 100 days.
2. Timely resubmission for insemination cows which failed to conceive to a previous service
More herds are adopting resynchronization programs to shorten the interval between services. Recent DHIA data shows that there has been improvement in reducing the interval to first service but the challenge is to reduce the intervals between subsequent services. To accomplish this, pregnancy status must be determined accurately and early enough so open cows are identified and resubmitted for insemination in a timely manner.
3. Maintaining accurate records and monitoring performance
I have been impressed with the information these dairy producers keep at their finger tips related to the key benchmarks of reproductive performance, use this information on a regular basis to monitor performance and quickly seek help in identifying potential problems.
4. Implementation of a comprehensive herd health program
Herds performing well have adopted the appropriate vaccination program for both heifers and cows for their geographical region and understand the importance of biosecurity. In conjunction with a sound nutrition program, a complete herd health program results in a low incidence of periparturient and postpartum reproductive and metabolic problems and good udder health. Such problems have a significant impact on conception rate. Implementing a routine hoof care program and appropriate calving management procedures are included under the general area of herd health.
5. Using standard procedures related to AI technique
Achieving good conception rate requires attention to the details associated with timing of insemination, semen handling and insemination technique. Always remember, you are handling a delicate commodity.
6. Place a high priority on nutrition and feeding management
These herd managers realize the importance of feeding a balanced ration to not only the lactating herd but breeding aged heifers, dry cows and the transition group. These managers or their consultants routinely evaluate body condition, monitor dry matter intake in all groups and quickly make adjustments.
7. Provide a good environment for the herd
Whether the cows are housed in a tie-stall barn, free stall barn, dry lot or bedded pack; high performing herds are provided adequate ventilation, attempt to improve the footing surface to minimize slipping and encourage mounting activity, allow for frequent interaction among cows and implement strategies for heat abatement. The maternity area is clean, dry and not overcrowded.
8. Utilize a team approach
Many successful small and large herds involve their veterinarian, nutritionist, AI consultant and employees in discussion related to reproductive management. Since reproduction is a complex process which is impacted by all many aspects of management, everyone must be aware of the economic importance of good reproductive performance, attention to detail, compliance with procedures and monitoring performance on a regular basis. When changes are made everyone must be informed.
One of the major misconceptions I encounter related to reproduction is: “good reproductive performance and high milk production are not compatible”. I have been on many herds that are successfully managing both areas and there is DHIA summary data to illustrate, that as a group, high producing herds achieve similar reproductive performance to lower producing groups of herds. Granted, it takes commitment to implement and maintain a systematic approach to reproductive management utilizing the concepts presented above.
Mike O’Connor, Dairy and Animal Science Extension
The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos
is known as the second largest land carnivore in the world, but in practice is an omnivore in the truest sense of the word. While in spring they will prey on newborn moose, deer, elk, and caribou, and in the fall they often feast on spawning salmon, plant matter still accounts for 90% of their diet.
Food is all important to a grizzly and every year is a remorseless struggle to accumulate sufficient fat reserves to see them through the winter hibernation. The implications of failing to do so are far reaching, and a sow grizzly will only bear young if she is in sufficiently good physical condition to nurture cubs through a winter. Typical lifespan for a grizzly in the wild is 25 years, and sows tend to have their first litter between 5 and 7, and their last at 20, typically giving birth to 2 or 3 cubs. A fully grown male weighs between 550 and 800 pounds (250 and 350 kilograms), and females about half that, though in recent years there have been reports of males as large as 1,600 pounds (725 kilograms) in Alaska.
Grizzly or brown bears range from the north western corner of the North American continent, through Siberia and northern Russia, to Finland, Sweden and Norway. Recent population estimates included 70,000 in North America and over 100,000 in Russia. There are also small enclaves in Romania and northern Japan. The US population is split between Alaska (44,000) and Montana, (1,000). In Canada where the population is estimated to be 25,000 there have been increased reports of grizzlies venturing out onto the Arctic sea ice to hunt seals, and competing with their Polar Bear cousins. There is a distinct possibility that grizzlies have always done so and the Polar Bear certainly evolved from an isolated population of grizzlies in Siberia, but many people including some Inuit elders believe that increased grizzly bear activity in the Artic is linked to global warming.
In the Canadian Pacific Northwest grizzly bears spend much of their time deep in the forest foraging for roots and berries which are critical for building fat reserves. In spring and summer they often venture beyond the tree line to feed on sedge grasses in the river lowlands, and forage for crustaceans and shellfish on the shoreline of coastal estuaries and inlets. In late summer and fall they take advantage of the food bonanza that is the annual pacific salmon run. Late August through to October is perhaps the best time to observe grizzly bears as they gorge themselves on salmon in shallow spawning rivers and channels. In times of plenty such as this, grizzlies can be very fussy eaters, taking only the salmon that are in the early stages of the dramatic physical changes that prelude spawning, and then often only eating the brain, skin and underlying layer of subcutaneous fat (the parts with the highest fat content).
After the days of plenty during the salmon run, fall and early winter is a headlong rush to pile on the calories before entering winter dens to hibernate. The sows tend to den first in mid November, with the males following up to a month later. Contrary to a common misconception, grizzlies are not true hibernators and remain semi-active in their dens all winter. They are however able to lower their body temperature, slow their metabolism, and live off their fat reserves for many months.
Let Bear Trails take you on an adventure of a lifetime to observe this magnificent animal in its natural habitat. In Spring (May & June) we can offer boat based viewing in various remote costal inlets and estuaries in Lower Mainland BC and in Northern BC. In summer (July to mid August) the estuary boat tours continue in Lower Mainland BC, and in Northern BC where the salmon run starts early, guided viewing on foot is offered. During the autumn salmon season (mid August to mid October) we can offer guided bear viewing on foot and in river driftboats in Central Mainland BC, and from secure viewing platforms or hides in Lower Mainland BC . Late autumn viewing is also offered from mid October to mid November in Northern BC. We are also able to offer a week long pack horse trip in July to observe grizzlies from horseback in the Chilcotin Mountains north of Vancouver (experienced riders only).
Why Yeast Don’t Grow in the Rumen
Confusion exists throughout the livestock and feeding industries about viable, live yeast cell products (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the yeast’s ability to grow in the rumen.
Designing Foods: Feeding Animals to Reduce Human Health Risks
BRUCE A. WATKINS
Center for Enhancing Foods to Protect Health Purdue University
The public is concerned about how diet impacts health and risk for disease, but they are often confused when presented with conflicting reports in the news media.