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(اطلاعات علوم دامی ) animal science site - مقالات انگلیسی
DIRECT FED MICROBIALS (DFM) AND ENZYMES FOR RUMINANTS یکشنبه بیست و هفتم بهمن 1392 10:46
جهت دریافت مقاله انگلیسی می توانید به آدرس ذیل مراجعه فرمایید

http://ag.udel.edu/anfs/faculty/kung/articles/direct_fed_microbials_and_enzyme.htm


شکل اجزای مختلف شکمبه نشخوارکنندگان


http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/semprojs/2003/feedlamb/rumen.jpg

نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants چهارشنبه دوم بهمن 1392 13:37
پیشرفت های اخیر در اکولوژی شکمبه بیشتر بر روی متابولیسم ازت، بررسی های هضمی فیبر مواد خوراکی و دستکاری در میکروفلور موجود در شکمبه پایه ریزی شده اند.


http://bks0.books.google.com/books?id=cfsXuJCewf8C&printsec=frontcover&img=1&zoom=5&edge=curl&imgtk=AFLRE72fDhT1zIv9VVHxSMSYurwlv6xocuPNeu4-44GATcbGfxugKfQcD2Rlj95BWOMhXqvXw_UGcjoGHGnKKNZbnmAyW0XcJ6CYUseVTQ5b2-ykI_yBgbZQRjhqONLi-m7mz7Yz-wuz


Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants 

http://books.google.com/books?id=cfsXuJCewf8C&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=rumen+microbial+ecology++ADVANCES&source=bl&ots=F4O2Nr6aCg&sig=OkE7Pa8tW5eVkxdXuoySTElJvBo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mZXfUrmQGYmKrQeIxIGAAQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=rumen%20microbial%20ecology%20%20ADVANCES&f=false

نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

دیپلودینیوم شنبه سی ام شهریور 1392 13:28

http://www.ejpau.media.pl/articles/volume9/issue4/art-48-fig2.jpg

از باکتری های غالب مژک دار در شکمبه دامهای نشخوارکننده دیپلودینیوم است که نقش زیادی در هضم مواد نشاسته ای دارد.

دریافت مقاله انگلیسی:

 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1959.tb04361.x/abstract


نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

RUMEN MICROBES یکشنبه بیست و چهارم شهریور 1392 12:11

http://www.soi.wide.ad.jp/class/20070046/slides/06/img/65.png

http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/zac0281.jpg

Kingdom: Eubacteria and Protist
Scientific Name: Diplodinium
Image Courtesy of: C.L. Davis, University of Illinois
Image Width: 35 microns
Image Technology: SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)

منبع : 
 
Rumen microbes could be considered a cow’s best
friend. Without microbes, a cow’s digestive system
would shut down and she would starve to death.
Cows and microbes actually have a mutually
benefi cial relationship. Microbes give the cow:
􀁺 labor to digest feed;
􀁺 a source of protein;
􀁺 a source of volatile fatty acids;
􀁺 the ability to digest forage.
On the other hand, cows provide
microbes with:
􀁺 water;
􀁺 warmth;
􀁺 grinding (cut chewing) of feed;
􀁺 anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions.
There are three main groups of rumen microbes:
􀁺 Bacteria carry out most of the digestion of sugars,
starch, fi ber, and protein for the cow.
􀁺 Protozoa swallow and digest bacteria, starch
granules, and some fi ber.
􀁺 Fungi make up only a small fraction of the
rumen microbial population, but they appear to
be important in splitting open plant fi bers to make
them more easily digested by the bacteria
نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

سنگ های ادراری پنجشنبه شانزدهم خرداد 1392 12:53

IMG_2338 

ایجاد سنگ در مجاری و مخازن نگهداری ادرار در بدن حیوانات اهلی نیاز به شرایطی دارد که از مهمترین آنها می توان به ترکیبات مواد معدنی در خوراک(بالاخص کلسیم و فسفر و منیزیمُ - مواد مغذی خصوصا پروتئین و تجزیه پورین ها و ترکیبات ازته دیگر نظیر اوره زیاد در ادرار و میزان پی-اچ ادرار - میزان مصرف آب و کیفیت آن  -ُ مصرف نوع علوفه (خشک و آبدار)  و شرایط زندگی حیوان ُ آب و هوا - جنسیت و ...  اشاره نمود. 

 Dog                 Struvite                                     Horse               Calcium Carbonate
Calcium oxalate                        Ox                   Struvite
Urate                                                                Silicate
Cystine                                                 Calcium oxalate
Silicate                                                             Calcium phosphate
Calcium phosphate                   Sheep               Silicate
Cat                  Struvite                                                 Struvite
Calcium oxalate                                                Calcium oxalate
Urate                                                                Calcium phosphate
Cystine                         Pig                   Urate
Calcium phosphate

 
Table 1:  Types or uroliths observed in domestic animals.

منبع:

UROLITHIASIS IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS

S.P. DiBartola, DVM

 جهت دریافت کد مقاله در ادامه مطلب با آدرس ای میل نویسنده ( mwtokasi@yahoo.com   تماس بگیرید.
 


ادامه مطلب
نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

بیو سیفتی سالمونلا در تغذیه طیور دوشنبه بیست و هشتم اسفند 1391 12:1

افزودنی های خوراکی شنبه پانزدهم مهر 1391 9:28

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons

/thumb/8/88/2-Phenylphenol.svg/200px-2-Phenylphenol.svg.png 

 2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol

(یک ترکیب آلی  مرکب از دو حلقه فنلی و

 یک گروه هیدروکسیل است که جهت مقابله با میکرب ها

در انبار میوه و سبزیجات تازه کاربرد دارد.)


افزودنی های خوراکی و تولید مکمل های معدنی و ویتامینی می بایست علاوه بر داشتن گواهینامه بهداشتی از سازمان دامپزشکی کشور دارای برند تخصصی و استانداردهای تضمین کیفیت (QA) و QI) )از مجامع جهانی نظیر FDA, WHO و غیره نیز باشند. از طرفی میزان افزودنی های مجاز در مکمل ها  نظیر انواع خاک رس و ترکیبات کمپلکس مشابه مصنوعی نیز که معمولا به نام پرکننده    (Filler) و  یا  همراه (binder) و قوام دهنده(Stabilizer) مطرح هستند در کنار مواد رنگ دهنده، طعم دهنده و غیره در ساخت کنسانتره های دامی، طیور و آبزیان می بایست استانداردهای مزبور را داشته باشند.

List of food additive types

Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap between them.

Acids 
Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid.
Acidity regulators 
Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods.
Anticaking agents 
Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking.
Antifoaming agents 
Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.
Antioxidants 
Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and can be beneficial to health.
Bulking agents 
Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value.
Food coloring 
Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation, or to make food look more attractive.
Color retention agents 
In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color.
Emulsifiers 
Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, and homogenized milk.
Flavors 
Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.
Flavor enhancers 
Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. They may be extracted from natural sources (through distillation, solvent extraction, maceration, among other methods) or created artificially.
Flour treatment agents 
Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking.
Glazing agents
Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods.
Humectants 
Humectants prevent foods from drying out.
Tracer gas
Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life.
Preservatives 
Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.
Stabilizers 
Stabilizers, thickeners and gelling agents, like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions.
Sweeteners 
Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low, or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea.
Thickeners 
Thickeners are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties.

Caffeine and other GRAS (generally recognized as safe) additives such as sugar and salt are not required to go through the regulation process.

Alphabetical index of food additives

Contents:
Top   0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

منبع:J. Anim Sci. 2010. 88:3749-3758. doi:10.2527/jas.2010-2907

 

Factors affecting beef cattle producer perspectives on feed efficiency

J. D. Wulfhorst*, J. K. Ahola , S. L. Kane*, L. D. Keenan and R. A. Hill

 

جهت دریافت اصل مقاله می توانید اینجا را کلیک فرمایید

نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

کلید های موفقیت در عملکرد تولید مثلی دام دوشنبه بیست و هشتم دی 1388 10:23

Keys to Successful Reproductive Performance

Dec 15, 2009

I have had the privilege to visit numerous dairy herds which consistently achieve high milk production and excellent reproductive performance. This article lists the major common characteristics among these herds.

I have had the privilege to visit dairy herds which consistently achieve high milk production and excellent reproductive performance. Some major common characteristics among these herds are:

1. Commitment to maintaining a high heat detection rate or submission rate to first service

The strategies to accomplish this vary among herds but include one or more of the following systems:

  • Routine visual observation for estrous behavior which results in accurate and efficient detection of estrus.
  • Proper use of either traditional heat detection aids or electronic systems to capture activity associated with estrus.
  • Implementation of a proven estrous synchronization or timed insemination program.
  • Contracting the services of an artificial breeding organization to perform estrous detection and other tasks associated with reproductive management.

The key is a systematic approach assuring a high percentage of the herd is inseminated between the voluntary waiting period and 100 days.

2. Timely resubmission for insemination cows which failed to conceive to a previous service

More herds are adopting resynchronization programs to shorten the interval between services. Recent DHIA data shows that there has been improvement in reducing the interval to first service but the challenge is to reduce the intervals between subsequent services. To accomplish this, pregnancy status must be determined accurately and early enough so open cows are identified and resubmitted for insemination in a timely manner.

3. Maintaining accurate records and monitoring performance

I have been impressed with the information these dairy producers keep at their finger tips related to the key benchmarks of reproductive performance, use this information on a regular basis to monitor performance and quickly seek help in identifying potential problems.

4. Implementation of a comprehensive herd health program

Herds performing well have adopted the appropriate vaccination program for both heifers and cows for their geographical region and understand the importance of biosecurity. In conjunction with a sound nutrition program, a complete herd health program results in a low incidence of periparturient and postpartum reproductive and metabolic problems and good udder health. Such problems have a significant impact on conception rate. Implementing a routine hoof care program and appropriate calving management procedures are included under the general area of herd health.

5. Using standard procedures related to AI technique

Achieving good conception rate requires attention to the details associated with timing of insemination, semen handling and insemination technique. Always remember, you are handling a delicate commodity.

6. Place a high priority on nutrition and feeding management

These herd managers realize the importance of feeding a balanced ration to not only the lactating herd but breeding aged heifers, dry cows and the transition group. These managers or their consultants routinely evaluate body condition, monitor dry matter intake in all groups and quickly make adjustments.

7. Provide a good environment for the herd

Whether the cows are housed in a tie-stall barn, free stall barn, dry lot or bedded pack; high performing herds are provided adequate ventilation, attempt to improve the footing surface to minimize slipping and encourage mounting activity, allow for frequent interaction among cows and implement strategies for heat abatement. The maternity area is clean, dry and not overcrowded.

8. Utilize a team approach

Many successful small and large herds involve their veterinarian, nutritionist, AI consultant and employees in discussion related to reproductive management. Since reproduction is a complex process which is impacted by all many aspects of management, everyone must be aware of the economic importance of good reproductive performance, attention to detail, compliance with procedures and monitoring performance on a regular basis. When changes are made everyone must be informed. 

Many successful small and large herds involve their veterinarian, nutritionist, AI consultant and employees in discussion related to reproductive management.

One of the major misconceptions I encounter related to reproduction is: “good reproductive performance and high milk production are not compatible”. I have been on many herds that are successfully managing both areas and there is DHIA summary data to illustrate, that as a group, high producing herds achieve similar reproductive performance to lower producing groups of herds. Granted, it takes commitment to implement and maintain a systematic approach to reproductive management utilizing the concepts presented above.

.....................
Mike O’Connor, Dairy and Animal Science Extension

نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

 

 

 

MICRO Livestock

نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

خرس گریزلی بزرگ و قدرتمند یکشنبه ششم اردیبهشت 1388 11:15

 

The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos

is known as the second largest land carnivore in the world, but in practice is an omnivore in the truest sense of the word. While in spring they will prey on newborn moose, deer, elk, and caribou, and in the fall they often feast on spawning salmon, plant matter still accounts for 90% of their diet.

Food is all important to a grizzly and every year is a remorseless struggle to accumulate sufficient fat reserves to see them through the winter hibernation. The implications of failing to do so are far reaching, and a sow grizzly will only bear young if she is in sufficiently good physical condition to nurture cubs through a winter. Typical lifespan for a grizzly in the wild is 25 years, and sows tend to have their first litter between 5 and 7, and their last at 20, typically giving birth to 2 or 3 cubs. A fully grown male weighs between 550 and 800 pounds (250 and 350 kilograms), and females about half that, though in recent years there have been reports of males as large as 1,600 pounds (725 kilograms) in Alaska.

Grizzly or brown bears range from the north western corner of the North American continent, through Siberia and northern Russia, to Finland, Sweden and Norway. Recent population estimates included 70,000 in North America and over 100,000 in Russia. There are also small enclaves in Romania and northern Japan. The US population is split between Alaska (44,000) and Montana, (1,000). In Canada where the population is estimated to be 25,000 there have been increased reports of grizzlies venturing out onto the Arctic sea ice to hunt seals, and competing with their Polar Bear cousins. There is a distinct possibility that grizzlies have always done so and the Polar Bear certainly evolved from an isolated population of grizzlies in Siberia, but many people including some Inuit elders believe that increased grizzly bear activity in the Artic is linked to global warming.

In the Canadian Pacific Northwest grizzly bears spend much of their time deep in the forest foraging for roots and berries which are critical for building fat reserves. In spring and summer they often venture beyond the tree line to feed on sedge grasses in the river lowlands, and forage for crustaceans and shellfish on the shoreline of coastal estuaries and inlets. In late summer and fall they take advantage of the food bonanza that is the annual pacific salmon run. Late August through to October is perhaps the best time to observe grizzly bears as they gorge themselves on salmon in shallow spawning rivers and channels. In times of plenty such as this, grizzlies can be very fussy eaters, taking only the salmon that are in the early stages of the dramatic physical changes that prelude spawning, and then often only eating the brain, skin and underlying layer of subcutaneous fat (the parts with the highest fat content).

After the days of plenty during the salmon run, fall and early winter is a headlong rush to pile on the calories before entering winter dens to hibernate. The sows tend to den first in mid November, with the males following up to a month later. Contrary to a common misconception, grizzlies are not true hibernators and remain semi-active in their dens all winter. They are however able to lower their body temperature, slow their metabolism, and live off their fat reserves for many months.

Let Bear Trails take you on an adventure of a lifetime to observe this magnificent animal in its natural habitat. In Spring (May & June) we can offer boat based viewing in various remote costal inlets and estuaries in Lower Mainland BC and in Northern BC. In summer (July to mid August) the estuary boat tours continue in Lower Mainland BC, and in Northern BC where the salmon run starts early, guided viewing on foot is offered. During the autumn salmon season (mid August to mid October) we can offer guided bear viewing on foot and in river driftboats in Central Mainland BC, and from secure viewing platforms or hides in Lower Mainland BC . Late autumn viewing is also offered from mid October to mid November in Northern BC. We are also able to offer a week long pack horse trip in July to observe grizzlies from horseback in the Chilcotin Mountains north of Vancouver (experienced riders only).

نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

Why Yeast Don’t Grow in the Rumen سه شنبه بیست و هشتم آبان 1387 13:0
 

Why Yeast Don’t Grow in the Rumen

Confusion exists throughout the livestock and feeding industries about viable, live yeast cell products (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the yeast’s ability to grow in the rumen.

 


ادامه مطلب
نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

: Feeding Animals to Reduce Human Health Risks یکشنبه بیست و ششم آبان 1387 11:50

Designing Foods: Feeding Animals to Reduce Human Health Risks

BRUCE A. WATKINS

Center for Enhancing Foods to Protect Health Purdue University

The public is concerned about how diet impacts health and risk for disease, but they are often confused when presented with conflicting reports in the news media.


ادامه مطلب
نوشته شده توسط محمد ولی تکاسی  | لینک ثابت |

 
http://www.nemunetak.ir/fa/modules/MT-Gallery/images/thumbs/Copy%20(2)%20of%202.jpeg